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Questions 1 - 8 refer to the following passage

Prehistoric mammoths have been preserved in the famous tar pits of Rancho La Brea (Brea is the Spanish word for tar) in what is now the heart of Los Angeles, California.

These tar pits have been known for centuries and were formerly mine for their natural asphalt, a black or brown petroleum-like substance. Thousands of tons were extracted before 1875, when it was first noticed that the tar contained fossil remains. Major excavations were undertaken that established the significance of this remarkable site.

The tar pits were found to contain the remains of scores of species of animals from the last 30,000 years of the Ice Age.

Since then, over 100 tons of fossils, 1.5 million from vertebrates, 2.5 million from invertebrates, have been recovered, often in densely concentrated tangled masses. The creatures found range from insects and birds to giant ground sloths, but a total of 17 proboscideans (animals with a proboscis or long nose) -including mastodons and Columbian mammoths-have been recovered, most of them from Pit 9, the deepest bone-bearing deposit, which was excavated in 1914. Most of the fossils date to between 40,000 and 10,000 years ago.

The asphalt at La Brea seeps to the surface, especially in the summer, and forms shallow puddles that would often have been concealed by leaves and dust. Unwary animals would become trapped on these thin sheets of liquid asphalt, which are extremely sticky in warm weather. Stuck, the unfortunate beasts would die of exhaustion and hunger or fall prey to predators that often also became stuck.

As the animals decayed, more scavengers would be attracted and caught in their turn.

Carnivores greatly outnumber herbivores in the collection: for every large herbivore, there is one saber-tooth cat, a coyote, and four wolves. The fact that some bones are heavily weathered shows that some bodies remained above the surface for weeks or months. Bacteria in the asphalt itself would have consumed some of the tissues of other than bones, and the asphalt itself would dissolve what was left, at the same time impregnating and beautifully preserving the saturated bones, rendering them dark brown and shiny.

1. What aspect of the La Brea tar pits does the passage mainly discuss?

A. The amount of asphalt that was mine there
B. The chemical and biological interactions between asphalt and animals
C. The fossil remains that have been found there
D. Scientific methods of determining the age of tar pits

2. In using the phrase 'the heart of Los Angeles' in line 2, the author is talking about the city's

A. beautiful design
B. central area
C. basic needs
D. supplies of natural asphalt

3. The word 'noticed' in line 5 is closest in meaning to

A. predicted
B. announced
C. corrected
D. observed

4. The word 'tangled' in line 10 is closest in meaning to

A. buried beneath
B. twisted together
C. quickly formed
D. easily dated

5. The word 'them' in line 13 refers to

A. insects
B. birds
C. sloths
D. proboscideans

6. How many probosideans have been found at the La Brea tar pits?

A. 9
B. 17
C. .5 million
D. .5 million

7. The word 'concealed' in line 17 is closest in meaning to

A. highlighted
B. covered
C. transformed
D. contaminated

8. Why does the author mention animals such as coyotes and wolves in paragraph 4?

A. To give examples of animals that are classified as carnivores
B. To specify the animals found least commonly at La Brea
C. To argue that these animals were especially likely to avoid extinction
D. To define the term 'scavengers'


Questions 9 - 19 refer to the following passage

The principal difference between urban growth in Europe and in the North American colonies was the slow evolution of cities in the former and their rapid growth in the latter.

In Europe they grew over a period of centuries from town economies to their present urban structure. In North America, they started as wilderness communities and developed to mature urbanism's in little more than a century.

In the early colonial days in North America, small cities sprang up along the Atlantic Coastline, mostly in what are now New England and the Middle Atlantic states in the United States and in the lower Saint Lawrence valley in Canada. This was natural because these areas were nearest England and France, particularly England, from which most capital goods (assets such as equipment) and many consumer goods were imported.

Merchandising establishments were, accordingly, advantageously located in port cities from which goods could be readily distributed to interior settlements. Here, too, were the favored locations for processing raw materials prior to export. Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Montreal, and other cities flourished, and as the colonies grew, these cities increased in importance.

This was less true in the colonial South, where life centered around large farms, known as plantations, rather than around towns, as was the case in the areas further north along the Atlantic coastline. The local isolation and the economic self-sufficiency of the plantations were antagonistic to the development of the towns. The plantations maintained their independence because they were located on navigable streams and each had a wharf accessible to the small shipping of that day. In fact, one of the strongest factors in the selection of plantation land was the desire to have it front on a water highway.

When the United States became an independent nation in 1776, it did not have a single city as large as 50,000 inhabitants, but by 1820 it had a city of more than 100,000 people, and by 1880 it had recorded a city of over one million. It was not until after 1823, after the mechanization of the spinning and weaving industries, that cities started drawing young people away from farms. Such migration was particularly rapid following the Civil War (1861-1865).

9. What does the passage mainly discuss?

A. Factors that slowed the growth of cities in Europe
B. The evolution of cities in North America
C. Trade between North American and European cities
D. The effects of the United States' independence on urban growth in New England

10. The word 'they' in line 4 refers to

A. North American colonies
B. Cities
C. Centuries
D. Town economies

11. The passage compares early European and North American cities on the basis of which of following?

A. Their economic success
B. The type of merchandise they exported
C. Their ability to distribute goods to interior settlements
D. The pace of their development

12. The word 'accordingly' in line 11 is closest in meaning to

A. as usual
B. in contrast
C. to some degree
D. for that reason

13. According to the passage, early colonial cities were established along the Atlantic coastline of North America due to

A. an abundance of natural resources
B. financial support from colonial governments
C. proximity to parts of Europe
D. a favorable climate

14. The passage indicates that during colonial times, the Atlantic coastline cities prepared which of the following for shipment to Europe?

A. Manufacturing equipment
B. Capital goods
C. Consumer goods
D. Raw materials

15. According to the passage, all of the following aspects of the plantation system influenced the growth of southern cities EXCEPT the

A. location of the plantations
B. access of plantation owners to shipping
C. relationships between plantation residents and city residents
D. economic self-sufficiency of the plantations

16. It can be inferred from the passage that, in comparison with northern cities, most southern cities were

A. more prosperous
B. smaller
C. less economically self-sufficient
D. tied less closely to England than to France

17. The word 'recorded' in line 26 is closest in meaning to

A. imagined
B. discovered
C. documented
D. planned

18. The word 'drawing' in line 27 is closest in meaning to

A. attracting
B. employing
C. instructing
D. representing

19. The passage mentions the period following the Civil War (lines 28-29) because it was a time of

A. significant obstacles to industrial growth
B. decreased dependence on foreign trade
C. increased numbers of people leaving employment on farms
D. increased migration from northern states to southern states


Questions 20 - 28 refer to the following passage

During the second half of the nineteenth century, the production of food and feed crops in the United States rose at an extraordinarily rapid rate. Corn production increased by four and a half times, hay by five times, oats and wheat by seven times. The most crucial factor behind this phenomenal upsurge in productivity was the widespread adoption of labor-saving machinery by northern farmers. By 1850 horse-drawn reaping machines that cut grain were being introduced into the major grain-growing regions of the country.

Horse-powered threshing machines to separate the seeds from the plants were already in general use. However, it was the onset of the Civil War in 1861 that provided the great stimulus for the mechanization of northern agriculture. With much of the labor force inducted into the army and with grain prices on the rise, northern farmers rushed to avail themselves of the new labor-saving equipment. In 1860 there were approximately 80,000 reapers in the country; five years later there were 350,000.

After the close of the war in 1865, machinery became ever more important in northern agriculture, and improved equipment was continually introduced. By 1880 a self-binding reaper had been perfected that not only cut the grain, but also gathered the stalks and bound them with twine. Threshing machines were also being improved and enlarged, and after 1870 they were increasingly powered by steam engines rather than by horses. Since steam-powered threshing machines were costly items-running from $ 1,000 to $ 4,000- they were usually owned by custom thresher owners who then worked their way from farm to farm during the harvest season. "Combines" were also coming into use on the great wheat ranches in California and the Pacific Northwest. These ponderous machinessometimes pulled by as many as 40 horses-reaped the grain, threshed it, and bagged it, all in one simultaneous operations.

The adoption of labor-saving machinery had a profound effect upon the scale of agricultural operations in the northern states-allowing farmers to increase vastly their crop acreage. By the end of the century, a farmer employing the new machinery could plant and harvest two and half times as much corn as a farmer had using hand methods 50 years before.

20. What aspect of farming in the United States in the nineteenth century does the passage mainly discuss?

A. How labor-saving machinery increased crop production
B. Why southern farms were not as successful as successful as northern farms
C. Farming practices before the Civil War
D. The increase in the number of people farming

21. The word 'crucial' in line 3 is closest in meaning to

A. obvious
B. unbelievable
C. important
D. desirable

22. The phrase 'avail themselves' in lines 10-11 is closest in meaning to

A. take care
B. make use
C. get rid
D. do more

23. According to the passage, why was the Civil War a stimulus for mechanization?

A. The army needed more grain in order to feed the soldiers.
B. Technology developed for the war could also be used by farmers.
C. It was hoped that harvesting more grain would lower the price of grain.
D. Machines were needed to replace a disappearing labor force.

24. The passage supports which of the following statements about machinery after the Civil War?

A. Many farmers preferred not to use the new machinery.
B. Returning laborers replaced the use of machinery.
C. The use of farm machinery continued to increase.
D. Poor-quality machinery slowed the pace of crop production.

25. Combines and self-binding reapers were similar because each

A. could perform more than one function
B. required relatively little power to operate
C. was utilized mainly in California
D. required two people to operate

26. The word 'they' in line 17 refers to

A. grain stalks
B. threshing machines
C. steam engines
D. horses

27. It can be inferred from the passage that most farmers did not own threshing machines because

A. farmers did not know how to use new machines
B. farmers had no space to keep the machines
C. thresher owner had chance to buy the machines before farmers did
D. the machines were too expensive for every farmer to own

28. The word 'ponderous' in line 21 is closest in meaning to

A. advanced
B. heavy
C. complex
D. rapid


Questions 29 - 39 refer to the following passage

The Native American peoples of the north Pacific Coast created a highly complex maritime culture as they invented modes of production unique to their special environment. In addition to their sophisticated technical culture, they also attained one of the most complex social organizations of any nonagricultural people in the world.

(5) In a division of labor similar to that of the hunting peoples in the interior and among foraging peoples throughout the world, the men did most of the fishing, and the women processed the catch. Women also specialized in the gathering of the abundant shellfish that lived closer to shore. They collected oysters, crabs, sea urchins, mussels, abalone, and clams, which they could gather while remaining close to their children. The maritime (10) life harvested by the women not only provided food, but also supplied more of the raw materials for making tools than did the fish gathered by the men. Of particular importance for the native tool kit before the introduction of metal was the wide knife made from the larger mussel shells, and a variety of cutting edges that could be made from other marine shells.

(15) The women used their tools to process all of the fish and marine mammals brought in by the men. They cleaned the fish, and dried vast quantities of them for the winter. They sun-dried fish when practical, but in the rainy climate of the coastal area they also used smokehouses to preserve tons of fish and other seafood annually. Each product had its (20) own peculiar characteristics that demanded a particular way of cutting or drying the meat, and each task required its own cutting blades and other utensils.

After drying the fish, the women pounded some of them into fish meal, which was an easily transported food used in soups, stews, or other dishes to provide protein and thickening in the absence of fresh fish or while on long trips. The women also made a cheese-like substance from a mixture of fish and roe by aging it in storehouses or by burying it in wooden boxes or pits lined with rocks and tree leaves.

29. Which aspect of the lives of the Native Americans of the north Pacific Coast does the passage mainly discuss?

A. Methods of food preservation
B. How diet was restricted by the environment
C. The contributions of women to the food supply
D. Difficulties in establishing successful farms

30. The word 'unique' in line 2 is closest in meaning to

A. comprehensible
B. productive
C. intentional
D. particular

31. The word 'attained' in line 3 is closest in meaning to

A. achieved
B. modified
C. demanded
D. spread

32. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that the social organization of many agricultural peoples is

A. more complex than that of hunters and foragers
B. less efficient than that of hunters and forages
C. more widespread than that of hunters and foragers
D. better documented than that of hunters and forages

33. According to the passage, what is true of the 'division of labor' mentioned in line 5?

A. It was first developed by Native Americans of the north Pacific Coast.
B. It rarely existed among hunting.
C. It was a structure that the Native Americans of the north Pacific Coast shared with many other peoples.
D. It provided a form of social organization that was found mainly among coastal peoples.

34. The word 'abundant' in line 7 is closest in meaning to

A. prosperous
B. plentiful
C. acceptable
D. fundamental

35. All of the following are true of the north Pacific coast women EXCEPT that they

A. were more likely to catch shellfish than other kinds of fish
B. contributed more materials for tool making than the men did
C. sometimes searched for food far inland from the coast
D. prepared and preserved the fish

36. The word 'They' in line 16 refers to

A. women
B. tools
C. mammals
D. men

37. The Native Americans of the north Pacific Coast used smokehouses in order to

A. store utensils used food preparation
B. prevent fish and shellfish from spoiling
C. have a place to store fish and shellfish
D. prepare elaborate meals

38. The wore 'peculiar' in line 19 is closest in meaning to

A. strange
B. distinctive
C. appealing
D. biological

39. All of the following are true of the cheese-like substance mentioned in paragraph 4 EXCEPT that it was

A. made from fish
B. not actually cheese
C. useful on long journeys
D. made in a short period of time


Questions 40 - 50 refer to the following passage


40. What does the passage mainly discuss?

A. Why archaeologist study prehistoric pot making
B. How early pottery was made and decorated
C. The development of kilns used by early potters
D. The variety of decorations on prehistoric pottery

41. The word 'meticulously' in line 6 is closest in meaning to

A. heavily
B. initially
C. carefully
D. completely

42. Which of the following was a process used by prehistoric potters to improve the texture of the clay?

A. adding temper
B. removing the water
C. beating on the clay
D. mixing the clay with plastic substances

43. The word 'durability' in line 11 is closest in meaning to

A. quality
B. endurance
C. adaptability
D. applicability

44. Prehistoric potters applied slips and glazes to their vessels in order to do which of the following?

A. improve the appearance of the vessels
B. prevent the vessels from leaking
C. help the vessels to dry more quickly
D. give the vessels a leather like quality

45. Which of the following was a method used by some potters to give vessels a glossy finish?

A. smoothing them with wet hands
B. mixing the clay with colored solutions
C. baking them at a very high temperature
D. rubbing them with a smooth hard object

46. The word 'incised' in line 19 is closest in meaning to

A. designed
B. carved
C. detailed
D. painted

47. The word 'they' in line 26 refers to

A. kilns
B. firings
C. pots
D. cracks

48. According to the passage, the advantage of kilns over open fires was that the kilns

A. required less wood for burning
B. reached higher temperatures
C. kept ashes away from the pots
D. baked vessels without cracking them

49. Look at the terms 'temper' (line 9) , 'glazes' (lines 14), 'kilns' (line 23), and 'compounds' (line 24)Which of these terms is NOT defined in the passage?

A. temper
B. glazes
C. kilns
D. compounds

50. The passage mentions that then pottery is fired under burning wood, the ashes help

A. prevent the clay from cracking
B. produce a more consistently baked pot
C. attain a very high temperature
D. give the vessel a glasslike finish




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